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Arabic Course Home Glossary of Arabic Grammar Terms
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STANDARD CLASSICAL ARABIC COURSE
32 Lessons and Exercises

LESSON 2

ARABIC ALPHABET

 

Note: Do not concern yourself with the vocabulary of

this lesson. Please focus on writing, connecting the letters and pronounciation.

 

1) Arabic is written from right to left.  There are 29 characters in Arabic, starting with 'alif, ending with Yaa .  ( ..... ), 26 consonants ( ) and 3 vowels ( ).

 

2) The first letter is 'Alif ().The Álif in the beginning of the word is a Hamzah () We will discuss all rules of the Hamzah in Lesson # 10.

 

Hamzah is pronounced as A in ARM, or I in INDIA or AU as in AUSTRALIA

           depends on its Auxiliary Signs

 

Alif is pronounced like an a in cat.

Alif is also pronounced as an a in car when it is proceeded with one of the following

letters: , , , , ,

, , , , ,                  

3) Some letters, dots and their position determine their sounds.

                                 

 

4)      There are three "Weak letters" (Harf Ájwaf) Pl. (Hurouf Jawfaa) or (Harf Illah) Pl. ( Hurouf Illah  in Arabic :

             

 

5) The non-weak letters are called "Sound Letters"( Harf  Sahih) Pl. ( Hurouf Sahiha). All letters other than the Weak Letters are Sound Letters .

 

6)      There are "Sun" Letters and there are "Moon Letters".

 The "Sun Letters"are:

                            

When the Definite Article () is added to a word which starts with a Sun Letter,

the letter () will be pronounced the same as the "Sun Letter" - assimilated.

example:     

By adding the Definite Article :  An -Nour.

 

The rest of the letters are "Moon Letters".

 

7) "Seperate" and "Inseparable Letters"                               

The Six "Separates are:                

These Letters are connected with the previous "Inseprabable Letter" or

stand alone. They cannot be connected to the following letters.

Examples:                 

 

8) Inseparable Letters come in four positions, initial, medial ,final and

isolated. ( Review The Table at the end of this lesson).

 

Example: The letter : isolated  
           
The first letter   in its initial form
The second letter in its medial form
The Third letter   in its final form

 

 

HOW TO CONNECT ARABIC LETTER

 

All Arabic letters can be connected from both side except for the following letters :

 

These letters can be connected from the right side & never be connected from the left

 

To make this simple and easy, the following chart will show you how.

 

  Isolated Final Medial Initial  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



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Exercise 2


Exercise 3


Exercise 4


Exercise 5


Exercise 6


Exercise 7


Exercise 8


Exercise 9


Exercise 10


Exercise 11


Exercise 12


Exercise 13


Exercise 14


Exercise 15


Exercise 16


Exercise 17


Exercise 18


Exercise 19


Exercise 20


Exercise 21


Exercise 22


Exercise 23


Exercise 24


Exercise 25


Exercise 26


Exercise 27


Exercise 28


Exercise 29


Exercise 30


Exercise 31


Exercise 32